Revolutionizing shale drilling with potassium chloride-based natural deep eutectic solvent as an additive

Rasool, M.H. and Ahmad, M. (2023) Revolutionizing shale drilling with potassium chloride-based natural deep eutectic solvent as an additive. Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology.

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Shale instability is a significant problem, accounting for approximately 70 of wellbore challenges during drilling operations. To address this issue, shale inhibitors are commonly added to drilling mud to stabilize the encountered shale formations. Ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents have been recognized as effective shale inhibitors due to their environmental friendliness and effectiveness. However, despite their advantages, these solutions still lack full environmental sustainability, leading researchers to explore more natural alternatives like Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES). This study focuses on the synthesis and application of a NADES composed of Potassium Chloride (KCl) and glycerine, aiming to enhance the environmental profile and efficacy of shale inhibitors. The NADES was prepared with a 1:8 molar ratio at a temperature of 60 °C. Characterization analyses, including Fourier Transform Infrared and Thermogravimetric Analysis, confirmed the formation of bonds between �(OH) and Cl� and demonstrated the NADES's thermal stability up to 200 °C. Incorporating 3 NADES into water-based mud, prepared following API 13B-1 standards, resulted in significant improvements in mud rheology. Specifically, the addition of 3 NADES reduced filtrate volume by 14.2 and mud cake thickness by 19.2. Furthermore, the 3 NADES exhibited remarkable inhibition of clay swelling by 69.23 and demonstrated a shale recovery rate of 58. When compared with 3 KCl and 3 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIM-Cl), the NADES-based mud outperformed both in terms of efficacy. These findings were further supported by additional analyses, including d-spacing measurements (XRD), Zeta Potential, Surface tension, and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Additionally, the rheological behavior of the NADES-based mud aligned with the Yield Power Law at both 25 °C and 100 °C. The study's findings contribute to the advancement of greener drilling practices and highlight the applicability of KCl-based NADES as a potential drilling fluid additive. © 2023, The Author(s).

Item Type: Article
Impact Factor: cited By 0
Uncontrolled Keywords: Additives; Boreholes; Eutectics; Field emission microscopes; Infill drilling; Ionic liquids; Molar ratio; Potash; Potassium chloride; Scanning electron microscopy; Shale; Solvents; Sustainable development; Thermogravimetric analysis, Clay minerology; Deep eutectic solvents; DES; Drilling operation; Natural deep eutectic solvent; Shale inhibition; Shale inhibitors; Shale instability; Solvent based; Wellbore, Drilling fluids
Depositing User: Mr Ahmad Suhairi Mohamed Lazim
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2023 13:00
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2023 13:00

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