MXenes and MXene-based materials for removal of pharmaceutical compounds from wastewater: Critical review

Tawalbeh, M. and Mohammed, S. and Al-Othman, A. and Yusuf, M. and Mofijur, M. and Kamyab, H. (2023) MXenes and MXene-based materials for removal of pharmaceutical compounds from wastewater: Critical review. Environmental Research, 228. ISSN 00139351

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The rapid increase in the global population and its ever-rising standards of living are imposing a huge burden on global resources. Apart from the rising energy needs, the demand for freshwater is correspondingly increasing. A population of around 3.8 billion people will face water scarcity by 2030, as per the reports of the World Water Council. This may be due to global climate change and the deficiency in the treatment of wastewater. Conventional wastewater treatment technologies fail to completely remove several emerging contaminants, especially those containing pharmaceutical compounds. Hence, leading to an increase in the concentration of harmful chemicals in the human food chain and the proliferation of several diseases. MXenes are transition metal carbide/nitride ceramics that primarily structure the leading 2D material group. MXenes act as novel nanomaterials for wastewater treatment due to their high surface area, excellent adsorption properties, and unique physicochemical properties, such as high electrical conductivity and hydrophilicity. MXenes are highly hydrophilic and covered with active functional groups (i.e., hydroxyl, oxygen, fluorine, etc.), which makes them efficient adsorbents for a wide range of species and promising candidates for environmental remediation and water treatment. This work concludes that the scaling up process of MXene-based materials for water treatment is currently of high cost. The up-to-date applications are still limited because MXenes are currently produced mainly in the laboratory with limited yield. It is recommended to direct research efforts towards lower synthesis cost procedures coupled with the use of more environmentally friendly materials to avoid secondary contamination. © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

Item Type: Article
Impact Factor: cited By 11
Uncontrolled Keywords: amoxicillin; atenolol; carbamazepine; ciprofloxacin; clofibric acid; fluorine; fresh water; functional group; hydroxyl group; ibuprofen; metformin; paracetamol; penicillin derivative; quinolone derivative; salicylic acid; sildenafil; tetracycline derivative; transition element; drug; MXene, adsorption; ceramics; drug; nanomaterial; physicochemical property; transition element; wastewater treatment, activated sludge; biodegradation; cell proliferation; contamination; controlled study; ecosystem restoration; electric conductivity; global climate; hospital wastewater; hydrophilicity; physical chemistry; Review; surface area; waste component removal; waste water management; waste water treatment plant; water insecurity; water treatment; adsorption; ceramics; human; wastewater, Adsorption; Ceramics; Humans; Pharmaceutical Preparations; Wastewater
Depositing User: Mr Ahmad Suhairi Mohamed Lazim
Date Deposited: 04 Oct 2023 13:31
Last Modified: 04 Oct 2023 13:31

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