Optimization Of Twofish Encryption Algorithm On FPGA

Raja, Ananda Raja Dore and Zain Ali, Noohul Basheer and Hussin, Fawnizu Azmadi (2005) Optimization Of Twofish Encryption Algorithm On FPGA. In: International Conference on Intelligent Systems (ICIS'05), December 2005, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.

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The demand for efficient and secure ciphers has given rise to a new generation of block ciphers capable of providing increased protection at lower cost. Among these new algorithms is Twofish. Twofish is a promising 128-bit block which was one of the 5 finalists in the National Institute of Standards and Technology organized competition as the Advanced Encryption Standard. The aim of the competition was to find a suitable candidate to replace DES at the core of many encryption systems worldwide. Twofish can work with variable key lengths: 128, 192 or 256 bits. In this report, only a version of 128-bit key length was discussed. Twofish has 6 main building blocks; Feistel Networks, whitening, S-boxes, MDS Matrices, Pseudo Hadamard Transforms and Key Schedule. Twofish is a 16 round Feistel network with a bijective F function, which corresponds to 8 cycles. The whitening technique employed substantially increases the difficulty of keysearch attacks against the remainder of the cipher. Twofish uses 4 different, bijective, key-dependent, 8-by-8 bit Sboxes. Twofish uses a single 4 by 4 MDS matrix over GF (28).This is one of the 2 main diffusion elements of Two fish. There is also Reed-Solomon code with the MDS property used in the key schedule; this doesn't add diffusion to the cipher but does add diffusion to the key schedule.) Besides that, Twofish also uses a 32 bit Pseudo Hadamard Transform to mix the outputs from its 2 parallel 32-bit g functions. Finally, Twofish needs a lot of key material, and has complicated key schedule. To facilitate analysis, the key schedule uses the same primitives as the round function. Except for 2 additional rotations, each pair of expanded key words is constructed by applying the Twofish round function (with key-dependent). For this project, 2 different optimized designs were implemented. The first design (Design I) was implemented with minimum hardware resources usage, using a single F -Function (modified) and was optimized with reasonable latency, throughput and throughput per gate. As for the second design (Design 2) was implemented with reasonably minimum hardware resources using 4 units of F-Function(modified) of Design I, minimum hardware resources usage, very small latency, very high throughput and very high throughput per gate. Furthermore, both Design I and Design 2 were implemented with zero keying and function as encryptor/decryptor. Both Design I and Design 2 were written using VHDL, simulated using ALDEC, synthesized using XILINX Synthesizing Tools, implemented using XILINX ISE6.2i implementation tools and download onto the Spartan 2 FPGA board using BEDLOAD utility program. As a conclusion this Final Year Project is quite successful because all the objectives have been met successfully.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Departments / MOR / COE: Centre of Excellence > Center for Intelligent Signal and Imaging Research
Depositing User: Dr Fawnizu Azmadi Hussin
Date Deposited: 07 Oct 2016 01:42
Last Modified: 07 Oct 2016 01:42
URI: http://scholars.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/12000

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